國家美術館。著名藝術作品首次被借出

3個月前
國家美術館。著名藝術作品首次被借出

"多年來,我們已經與這個特殊的想法失去了聯繫,但這是國家美術館真正理解的東西,也是指導我作為文化部長的核心問題,"她說。"我希望每個人都能接觸到我們的世界級藝術和文化,不管他們是誰,也不管他們來自哪裡。"

國家美術館是在近200年前由議會設立的,目的是建立一個供公眾使用的繪畫收藏。但在過去兩個世紀的大部分時間裡,公眾能夠看到這些藝術品的唯一途徑是親自到倫敦。

整個收藏品只被移動過一次,是為了保護它不受德國炸彈的襲擊,而不是為了與更多的觀眾接觸。在第二次世界大戰中,這些畫作被運到威爾士的臨時地點,然後所有2000幅畫作被藏在斯諾多尼亞的一個前採石場,以便安全保存。

不過,幾十年後,國家美術館的傑作才回到威爾士。雖然該機構確實越來越多地將作品借給他人,但有時你更有可能在國外的博物館看到該畫廊的倫勃朗或莫奈的作品,而不是在英國的畫廊,儘管事實上英國納稅人資助並共同擁有該收藏。

近幾十年來,畫廊加大了努力,在全國範圍內更廣泛地分享其藝術。2018年,它買下了備受讚譽的17世紀意大利藝術家Artemisia Gentileschi的自畫像後,這幅畫在英國進行了巡展,不是去博物館和畫廊,而是去不同類型的人可能真正看到它的地方。

作為二百周年紀念計劃的一部分,這12幅傑作將被送往英國四個國家的12家博物館和美術館。其中有兩件作品以前從未被國家美術館借出過。波提切利的《維納斯和火星》和14世紀的《威爾頓雙聯畫》是英國有史以來最偉大的畫作之一,將在國家美術館歷史上首次在倫敦以外的地方看到。

世界各地的藝術機構一直在努力解決其收藏中缺乏女性藝術家的問題。根據劍橋大學全女性的默里-愛德華茲學院最近的一項研究,收藏了從1400年代到1900年代作品的國家美術館已經被發現有一個特別的問題。館藏作品中只有約1%是女性藝術家的作品。

國家美術館是一個歷史性的收藏,可以追溯到女性藝術家不被認可的時代,儘管它確實經常在其畫廊中展示當代女性藝術家的作品。它指出,"NG200:國家寶藏 "是一個更廣泛的計劃的一部分,該計劃旨在讓英國和世界各地的觀眾了解其藝術,以迎接其周年紀念。


"We've lost touch with that particular idea over the years, but it's something the National Gallery really understands and it's the central issue which guides me as culture secretary," she said. "I want everyone to have access to our world class art and culture, no matter who they are or where they came from."

The National Gallery was set up almost 200 years ago by Parliament to create a collection of paintings for the use of the public. But for much of the past two centuries, the only way that the public could see the art was in person in London.

The entire collection has been moved only once, to protect it from German bombs rather than to engage with a wider audience. In World War Two, the paintings were transported to temporary sites in Wales before all 2,000 pictures were hidden in a former quarry in Snowdonia for safe keeping.

It was many decades, though, before a National Gallery masterpiece returned to Wales. While the institution did loan works increasingly to others, you were sometimes more likely to see one of the gallery's Rembrandts or Monets in a museum abroad than in a gallery in the UK, despite the fact that UK taxpayers fund and co-own the collection.

In recent decades, the gallery has stepped up its efforts to share its art more widely across the nation. After it bought a self-portrait by acclaimed 17th Century Italian artist Artemisia Gentileschi in 2018, the painting went on a tour of the UK, not to museums and galleries but to places where different kinds of people might actually see it.

The 12 masterpieces that are part of the bicentenary plans will be sent to 12 museums and galleries across the four nations of the UK. Two of the works have never been loaned by the National Gallery before. Botticelli's Venus and Mars and the 14th Century Wilton Diptych, one of the greatest pictures ever produced in the UK, will be seen for the first time in National Gallery history outside London.

Art institutions around the world have been trying to address the lack of female artists in their collections. The National Gallery, which holds work from the 1400s to the 1900s, has already been found to have a particular problem, according to a recent study by Cambridge's all-female Murray Edwards College. Only around 1% of the works in the collection are by female artists.

The National Gallery is a historical collection, dating from a time when women artists weren't recognised, although it does regularly showcase the work of contemporary female artists in its galleries. It points out that NG200: National Treasures is one part of a wider plan to get its art out to audiences in the UK and across the world for its anniversary.

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