製作礦物質。碾碎、斬斷、煮沸和烘烤

2個月前
製作礦物質。碾碎、斬斷、煮沸和烘烤

他告訴BBC世界頻道的 "科學在行動 "節目說:"近兩個世紀以來,一直有一個基於礦物的化學和晶體結構的分類系統,而我們的系統增加了時間和形成環境的因素。

這對夫婦提出的觀點是,如果你不了解一種礦物的形成過程和時間,你就無法真正欣賞它的意義。他們的研究表明,大自然使用了57種 "配方 "來創造10,500種他們稱之為 "礦物種類 "的東西--通過粉碎、敲擊、煮沸、烘烤等等。

"例如,光合作用產生氧氣。氧氣是一種非常活躍的氣體,它通過氧化礦物來改變地球的表面。因此,由於大氣中的氧氣,地球上形成了2000多種新礦物。但當然,生命也創造了自己的礦物,即生物礦物質。

Hazen博士說。"以前的礦物學體系說方解石是方解石;那是方解石晶體結構中的碳酸鈣,那是一個物種。但是我們說不,不,不--有10、15也許20種不同的方解石,因為由貝殼沉積的方解石與在洋底僅僅通過化學沉澱形成的方解石非常不同,或者在地球深處的變質過程中形成的方解石--高壓和高溫的過程。

"如果我們找到它,它不會是我們找到一個特定的礦物種類;它將是這些礦物的微量元素、形態、大小和形狀。它們的局部關聯將是火星上生命的煙幕彈。"


"There's been a classification system in place for almost two centuries that's based on the chemistry and the crystal structure of minerals, and ours adds the dimensions of time and formation environment," he told the Science In Action programme on the BBC World Service.

The point the pair are making is that you can't truly appreciate the significance of a mineral unless you also understand how and when it formed. Their research shows nature has used 57 "recipes" to create 10,500 of what they like to call "mineral kinds" - by crushing, zapping, boiling, baking and more.

"For example, photosynthesis produces oxygen. Oxygen is a very reactive gas, and it changes the surface of Earth by oxidising minerals. So more than 2,000 new minerals formed on Earth as a result of oxygen in the atmosphere. But of course, life also creates its own minerals, biominerals.

Dr Hazen said: "The previous system of mineralogy said calcite is calcite; that's calcium carbonate in the calcite crystal structure, that's a species. But we say no, no, no - there are 10, 15 maybe 20 different kinds of calcite, because the calcite deposited by a shell is very different from the calcite that forms on the ocean floor through just chemical precipitation, or calcite formed deep within the Earth in a process of metamorphism - of high pressure and high temperature.

"If we find it, it's not going to be that we find one particular species of mineral; it's going to be the trace of minor elements, the morphologies, the sizes and shapes of these minerals. It's their local associations that's going to be the smoking gun for life on Mars."

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