More than 700 tourism businesses across Scotland took part in the survey, which ran from 17 May to 8 June.
A record 55% of businesses reported that their international bookings for June-August were lower in comparison with May 2019 - before the pandemic.
It also highlighted problems with staffing and recruitment, with 60% of hotels saying they are unable to trade effectively at current staffing levels.
Marc Crothall, STA chief executive, said the report showed recovery from the pandemic was happening at a much slower pace than anticipated and not across all tourism sectors.
"People are hesitant about committing to booking a break due to household financial challenges and uncertainty and with the rise of energy prices and supplier costs, many businesses are finding the level of recovery almost static.
"This impacts the ability for our tourism industry to remain competitive globally; we struggle to compete on price and we're unable to retain and attract the quality of staff required to deliver the level of service demanded by today's consumers."
Malcolm Roughead, chief executive of VisitScotland, said the survey underlined some of the challenges facing the tourism industry but also highlighted some positives.
He said: "There are some encouraging signs with the return of international visitors and consumer research which shows more UK residents expect to take an overnight domestic trip between June and September than in 2021."