阿德利企鵝。南極洲東部部分地區的物種數量正在減少

6天前
阿德利企鵝。南極洲東部部分地區的物種數量正在減少

澳大利亞的科學家們說,他們記錄到南極洲東海岸的阿德利企鵝的數量大幅下降。

長期監測顯示,在過去十年中,莫森研究站附近的鳥類數量減少了近50%。

研究人員說,這種下降與南極洲東部的其他阿德利企鵝種群形成了巨大的反差,那裡的數量要麼穩定,要麼增加。

專家們認為這可能是由於企鵝聚居地附近的冰層太多造成的。

為了收集數據,澳大利亞南極洲分部的海鳥專家對南極洲東部52個島嶼的100公里海岸線進行了10年的監測。

他們發現在這段時間裡,大約減少了154,000隻鳥--數量下降了43%。

海鳥生態學家說,這種下降速度與南極半島上的阿德利企鵝種群的下降速度相似,那裡的捕魚、氣候變化和人類活動都對數量產生了影響。

然而,莫森種群的下降被認為是由環境條件造成的。

澳大利亞南極分部的Louise Emmerson博士說,這種減少是由靠近殖民地的 "五年廣泛的夏季海冰 "引起的。

這塊冰的長度可以達到80公里,這意味着企鵝必須走很遠的路才能到海洋中去尋找食物。

科學家們說,在2003-2008年間,有大量的這種冰--所謂的 "快速冰"--導致幾乎沒有雛鳥能夠生存。

埃默森博士說,南極洲周圍的快冰已經減少,他們仍在研究是什麼原因導致這一特定地區的快冰增加。

她補充說,下一步是繼續研究和長期監測,以便他們能夠更好地了解種群變化。

她還說,科學家們希望這一地區的企鵝數量能在未來幾年內再次增加。


Scientists in Australia say they have recorded a big drop in a population of Adélie penguins off the east coast of Antarctica.

Long-term monitoring has revealed a decrease of nearly 50% in the number of the birds near the Mawson research station over the past decade.

Researchers say that the decline is a big contrast to other Adélie penguin populations in east Antarctica where numbers have either been stable or increasing.

Experts think this could have been caused by too much ice near the penguin colony.

In order to collect the data, seabird experts at the Australian Antarctic Division monitored a 100km stretch of coastline across 52 islands in east Antarctica for 10 years.

They found a decrease of around 154,000 birds over that time - a drop of 43% in the population.

Seabird ecologists say the rate of decline is similar to that in Adélie penguin populations on the Antarctic Peninsula, where fishing, climate change and human activity have all had an impact on numbers.

However, the decline in the Mawson population is thought to have been caused by environmental conditions.

Dr Louise Emmerson from the Australian Antarctic Division said the decrease was started by "five years of extensive summer sea ice" close to the colony.

This ice can be up to 80km in length, which means that the penguins have to take a very long trip to get to the ocean for food.

Between 2003-2008 scientists say there was a lot of this ice - so-called "fast ice" - which resulted in hardly any chicks being able to survive.

Dr Emmerson said that there's been a decrease in fast ice around Antarctica and they are still looking into what caused the increase in fast ice in this particular area.

She added that the next step was to continue research and long-term monitoring so that they can better understand population changes.

She also said that scientists hoped the penguin population in this area could increase again within the next few years.

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