變性運動員。科伊勳爵暗示田徑隊可能會效仿游泳隊禁止變性婦女參賽

3個月前
變性運動員。科伊勳爵暗示田徑隊可能會效仿游泳隊禁止變性婦女參賽

世界田徑協會主席科伊勳爵暗示,這項運動可能會效仿游泳運動,禁止變性人參加精英女性比賽,並堅稱 "公平是不可談判的"。

這一具有里程碑意義的決定使游泳運動與幾乎所有其他奧林匹克運動不同,大多數運動都以睾丸激素的限制為基礎來進行。

但科勳爵現在透露,世界田徑協會將討論採用新的資格政策,並歡迎菲娜的舉動。

"他對BBC體育說:"我們看到一個國際聯合會在制定符合其運動的最佳利益的規則、條例和政策方面堅持其首要地位。

"這是它應該做的。我們一直認為,生物學勝過性別,我們將繼續根據這一點審查我們的法規。我們將遵循科學。

"我們繼續學習、研究並為越來越多的證據做出貢獻,即睾丸激素是性能的關鍵決定因素,並安排在年底與我們的理事會討論我們的法規。"

  • 無 科學家們是怎麼說的?

背景是什麼?

在Coe勳爵的領導下,世界田徑協會已經出台了規則,將變性運動員和一些女子跑步項目中的性別發育差異(DSD)的選手的睾丸激素水平限制在每升5納摩爾(5nmol/L)。

隨着國際奧林匹克委員會(IOC)最近讓各個聯合會負責確定他們自己的資格標準,其他運動項目現在正在引入更嚴厲的政策。

上周,自行車運動的世界管理機構UCI將允許的睾丸激素水平從5毫摩爾/升降至2.5毫摩爾/升,並將變性騎手參加比賽的時間延長至兩年。

但是,在一個科學小組的報告中說,經歷男性青春期意味着變性女性保留了 "相對於生物女性的性能優勢",即使在用藥減少睾丸激素之後,菲娜現在又進一步。

這是繼2020年世界橄欖球賽之後,第二個對變性選手實施禁令的奧林匹克管理機構,但現在看來,田徑運動越來越有可能效仿。

"我們一直試圖找到一種可操作的方式。我們並不想污名化,"Coe勳爵說。

"但在迫不得已的情況下,如果要在包容和公平之間做出判斷,我們將永遠站在公平的一邊--對我來說,這是沒有商量餘地的。

"婦女運動的完整性在這裡非常非常重要,我們不能讓一代年輕女孩認為她們在這項運動中沒有未來。因此,我們有責任......保持女性競爭的首要地位和完整性是絕對重要的,這就是為什麼我們在提交這些法規時走在最前面,允許儘可能接近公平競爭的環境。

"這些規定一直在審查中......如果有一些項目、距離或學科我們認為受到了不公平的影響,我們當然會根據科學來重新審視這些項目。"

菲娜的新政策意味着變性的美國大學游泳運動員利亞-托馬斯(Lia Thomas)表示希望在巴黎奧運會上爭得一席之地,現在他被阻止參加奧運會的女子組比賽。

該管理機構表示,它將致力於在比賽中為性別認同與出生性別不同的游泳運動員設立一個 "開放 "類別。

它的政策並不適用於國家聯合會或美國大學錦標賽,即NCAAs,托馬斯最近在該錦標賽上贏得了女子500碼自由泳。相反,每個國家的聯合會--包括英國游泳協會--將需要決定是否要執行Fina的政策。

英國游泳協會告訴BBC體育,它將 "花時間審查[政策的]內容",然後再發表任何進一步的評論。

由於圍繞變性婦女的包容問題是體育界最具爭議性的問題,Fina的決定已經引起了意見分歧。

前英國游泳運動員凱倫-皮克林(Karen Pickering)告訴英國廣播公司第四台:"我很同情有些人現在不能參加他們所認同的性別類別的競爭。這是非常可悲的,我也理解這一點,但在這種情況下,包容性和公平性是無法兼容的,科學已經表明,沒有辦法使其兼容。"

四屆奧運會冠軍凱特-坎貝爾(Cate Campbell)--在作出決定之前曾向管理機構的成員發表講話--要求他們 "堅持公平的基石"。

然而,同為澳大利亞游泳運動員的麥迪-格羅夫斯(Maddie Groves)批評了坎貝爾的言論,在推特上問她是否 "可以排斥一個已經被邊緣化的群體?"

LGBT權利機構Stonewall的一位發言人說。"在體育運動中,包容應該永遠是出發點。每個人都應該受益於體育帶來的幸福感和社區,這包括變性人。

"圍繞着精英比賽中的變性人融入問題的煽動性言論,只能使變性人感到不受歡迎的氣氛長期存在,無法與朋友一起進行社區運動,或去健身房。

"體育中的變性人融入是一個複雜的、不斷發展的領域,需要細緻入微的、基於證據的討論。那些尋求將變性人從公共生活中徹底清除的人所進行的討論對體育和變性人都沒有好處。"

同時,美國女足明星梅根-拉皮諾(Megan Rapinoe)是體育界最有影響力的聲音之一,她說她 "100%支持 "變性人融入。

"讓我看看有什麼證據表明,變性婦女正在奪取每個人的獎學金,在每項運動中占主導地位,正在贏得每個冠軍。我很抱歉,這並沒有發生。"她告訴《時代》雜誌。

"我有信心,我們可以解決這個問題。但我們不能從反面開始。這是很殘酷的。而且坦率地說,這只是令人厭惡的。我們把一切都歸結為'上帝禁止變性人在體育界取得成功'。把握現實,退一步說"。

  • 無 J-埃德加-胡佛知道的太多,怎麼會有美國總統解僱他?
  • 無 喬納森-阿格紐在評論區問莫恩-阿里所有的問題

World Athletics president Lord Coe has hinted the sport could follow swimming in banning transgender women from elite female competitions, insisting "fairness is non-negotiable".

The landmark decision set swimming apart from almost all other Olympic sports, with most using testosterone limits as a basis for inclusion.

But Lord Coe has now revealed that World Athletics is set to discuss adopting a new eligibility policy, and welcomed Fina's move.

"We see an international federation asserting its primacy in setting rules, regulations and policies that are in the best interest of its sport," he told BBC Sport.

"This is as it should be. We have always believed that biology trumps gender and we will continue to review our regulations in line with this. We will follow the science.

"We continue to study, research and contribute to the growing body of evidence that testosterone is a key determinant in performance, and have scheduled a discussion on our regulations with our council at the end of the year." • None What do the scientists say?

What is the background?

Under Lord Coe, World Athletics has already introduced rules that cap testosterone levels at five nanomoles per litre (5nmol/L) for transgender athletes and for competitors with differences in sex development (DSD) in some women's running events.

And with the International Olympic Committee (IOC) recently placing responsibility on individual federations to determine eligibility criteria of their own, other sports are now bringing in tougher policies.

Last week, cycling's world governing body the UCI lowered the permitted testosterone level from 5nmol/L to to 2.5nmol/L, and doubled the period of time before a transgender rider can compete to two years.

But Fina has now gone further after a report by a scientific panel said that going through male puberty meant trans women retained a "relative performance advantage over biological females", even after medication to reduce testosterone.

It is only the second Olympic governing body, after World Rugby in 2020, to introduce a ban on transgender competitors, but it now looks increasingly likely that track and field could follow suit.

"We've always tried to find a navigable way through. We haven't wanted to stigmatise," said Lord Coe.

"But when push comes to shove, if it's a judgement between inclusion and fairness, we will always fall down on the side of fairness - that for me is non-negotiable.

"The integrity of women's sport is really, really important here, and we can't have a generation of young girls thinking there is not a future for them in the sport. So we have a responsibility…maintaining the primacy and the integrity of female competition is absolutely vital, and that's why we were at the forefront of tabling those regulations that allow as close as you can get to a level playing field.

"Those regulations are always under review… if there are events, distances or disciplines that we think are being unfairly impacted we will of course look at those again in the light of the science."

Fina's new policy means transgender American college swimmer Lia Thomas, who has expressed a desire to compete for a place at the Paris Olympics, is now blocked from participating in the female category at the Games.

The governing body says it will aim to establish an 'open' category at competitions for swimmers whose gender identity is different than their birth sex.

Its policy does not apply to national federations or the US college championships, the NCAAs, at which Thomas recently won the women's 500-yard freestyle. Instead, each national federation - including British Swimming - will need to decide whether it is to implement the Fina policy.

British Swimming told BBC Sport it would "take time to review [the policy's] content" before making any further comment.

With the debate around the inclusion of transgender women among the most contentious in sport, Fina's decision has already divided opinion.

Former GB swimmer Karen Pickering told BBC Radio 4: "I empathise that there will be people who now can't compete in the category that they identify with as their gender. That is very sad and I do understand that, but in this situation inclusivity and fairness cannot be compatible and the science has shown that there is just no way to make that compatible."

Four-time Olympic champion Cate Campbell - who had addressed the governing body's members before the decision was made - asked them to "uphold the cornerstone of fairness".

However, fellow Australian swimmer Maddie Groves has criticised Campbell's comments, asking on Twitter whether she was "OK with ostracising an already marginalised group?"

A spokesperson for LGBT rights body Stonewall said: "In sport, inclusion should always be the starting point. Everyone deserves to benefit from the sense of wellbeing and community that sport brings - and that includes trans people.

"The inflammatory rhetoric surrounding the issue of trans inclusion in elite competition only serves to perpetuate an atmosphere where trans people feel unwelcome to play community sport with friends, or go to the gym.

"Trans inclusion in sport is a complex, evolving field that requires nuanced, evidence-based discussion. A discussion weaponised by those that seek the total removal of trans people from public life does not serve sport or trans people well."

Meanwhile, US women's football star Megan Rapinoe, one of the most influential voices in sport, has said she is "100% supportive" of trans inclusion.

"Show me the evidence that trans women are taking everyone's scholarships, are dominating in every sport, are winning every title. I'm sorry, it's just not happening," she told Time magazine .

"I have confidence that we can figure it out. But we can't start at the opposite. That is cruel. And frankly, it's just disgusting. We're putting everything through 'God forbid a trans person be successful in sports.' Get a grip on reality and take a step back." • None How did J Edgar Hoover know too much for any US president to fire him? • None Jonathan Agnew asks Moeen Ali all of your questions in the commentary box

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