2022年溫布爾登:時期、網球和SW19的白衣傳統

3個月前
2022年溫布爾登:時期、網球和SW19的白衣傳統

當前奧運網球冠軍莫妮卡-普伊格(Monica Puig)寫到在月經期間在溫布爾登穿白色衣服的 "精神壓力 "時,得到的答覆很有啟發性。

大多數回復者都表示支持,不僅僅是支持普伊格的發言,而且支持圍繞着着裝和經期進行更廣泛的討論。有一兩個人承認他們沒有想到這是一個問題,直到上個月這位波多黎各人指出了這一點。

英國選手希瑟-沃特森告訴BBC體育:"這絕對是溫布爾登周圍的選手們談論的事情,因為全部都是白人"。

"我認為人們經常談論它--也許不是對媒體,但在我們之間,肯定是這樣。"

事情正在發生變化。圍繞時期和體育的對話正在增長。因此,讓我們來談談溫布爾登的白人和月經出血的問題。

白色最初是網球運動服的首選顏色,因為它可以避免像彩色衣服那樣出現汗斑。溫布爾登的白衣規則很嚴格。短褲、裙子和運動服底褲必須完全是白色的,除了在外縫處有一條 "不寬於一厘米 "的彩色飾邊。

對華生來說,穿着白色衣服比賽是一種特殊的體驗。"她說:"我真的很喜歡它的傳統,我不想改變這一點。"我唯一的壓力是我來了月經,但我只是圍繞它來計劃我的月經。"

沃特森說,從美學角度講,她會擔心出血穿透她的白衣。但她最大的問題是,吃藥並不能阻止影響她比賽的症狀。她解釋說:"我變得臃腫,我得到了痙攣和疲勞,"。

這位英國人是最早談論她的月經對她的表現的影響的網球運動員之一,當時她在2015年的澳大利亞公開賽第一輪被擊敗。

在一周前在霍巴特奪冠後抵達墨爾本時,沃森說她 "在我的網球內感覺很好"。但是在比賽當天,她的月經開始了。沃特森每個時期都有 "可怕的一天",她沒有什麼能量或力量。七年前,那一天讓她感到頭重腳輕,昏昏欲睡,她以6-4 6-0輸給了茨維塔娜-皮隆科娃。

因此,當那一天發生在溫布爾登中間時,溫布爾登是沃森的主場大滿貫,也是她在2016年贏得混雙冠軍的地方,她採取了行動。

"幾周前,當我們一起去溫布爾登練習時,我真的和達里婭[薩維爾,澳大利亞球員]進行了這樣的對話,"沃森解釋說。

"我那天開始來月經了,而且你在溫布爾登也必須全年穿着全白的衣服。我想'哦,那很煩人'。

"然後我計算了一下,我可能會在錦標賽期間再次來月經,所以我說我可能會去吃藥,只是為了在溫布爾登跳過我的月經。這就是女孩們在這方面的思考過程和對話。"

雖然月經及其對體育的潛在影響正在被更多地討論,但關於穿白色衣服的潛在不適在很大程度上被保留在球員之間的聊天中。

不是每個球員都想吃藥。就像表現會受到經期的影響一樣,一些女性也會覺得吃藥會影響她們在球場上的表現。英國廣播公司(BBC)2020年的女性體育調查發現,60%的受訪者認為她們的表現受到了經期的影響,而40%的受訪者不願意與教練討論她們的經期。

其他球員也談到了經期的影響。在今年的法國公開賽上,鄭欽文是唯一一個從不可阻擋的伊加-斯威亞特克手中拿下一盤的選手,在最後兩盤中受到了胃痙攣的阻礙。她事後說這是由於 "女孩的事情",並補充說。"我必須做運動,而我在第一天總是有那麼多的疼痛。我不能違背我的本性"。

佩特拉-科維托娃在2015年開始她的溫布爾登衛冕戰之前談到了月經,儘管她對穿白色衣服沒有異議。"要多處理一件艱難的事情,其實從來都不容易,"她說。"如果我們要打比賽或訓練什麼的,那就很難了。"

溫布爾登有一個球員關係團隊和球員醫療團隊,他們與運動員緊密合作,討論和解決一系列問題,包括月經。

"我們希望確保我們優先考慮女性的健康,並根據球員的個人需求為他們提供任何需要,"溫布爾登的一位發言人說。

"這可能是關於某人的感覺,可能是需要與人交談--該團隊提供的各種不同的東西。

"在溫布爾登比賽的球員的健康和福祉對我們來說是最重要的--我們希望每個人都感到舒適,我們把這放在我們所做的一切的中心。"

球員們可能會擔心,倡導為女性做出改變或談論經期意味着人們會認為它被用作表現不佳的藉口。

以廁所休息為例。斯特凡諾斯-齊西帕斯在2021年美國公開賽期間蜿蜒的廁所休息時間導致了關於它們被用作戰術暫停的辯論。一些人希望進一步限制大滿貫比賽中的廁所休息時間,無論是男性還是女性。

但是,如果一個女人想利用廁所休息時間來更換衛生棉條或墊子。在一場三局兩勝的比賽中,她有一次機會這樣做,純粹的上廁所時間為3分鐘,如果她還想換衣服,則需要5分鐘。大滿貫規則手冊指出,超過這個時間意味着球員將被處罰為連續違反時間。

在這段時間裡,她需要去廁所,更換護墊或衛生棉條,處理舊的,確保她感覺舒適,不會漏尿,可能會換衣服,然後拉起白衣,重新出場。在實踐中,休息時間的長短將由裁判員決定。

可以授權再上一次廁所,但這很可能意味着要和附近有麥克風或攝像機的裁判員說話--有些球員可能覺得不舒服。

一些服裝公司正在對他們的服裝進行防偽處理,阿迪達斯告訴BBC體育,它已經在女性訓練產品中加入了這種技術。溫布爾登也緊跟服裝創新的步伐,使其能夠更好地支持球員,同時保持白色服裝,它說這是其傳統的一個 "基本 "部分。

"溫布爾登發言人說:"2019年,我們改變了服裝政策,使球員可以穿經批准的緊身褲和大腿中部的壓縮短褲,這也是對WTA着裝規範更廣泛的改變的一部分。

"如果有人想在白衣下面穿東西,那麼他們更有權這樣做。"

除了讓球員感到舒適之外,它還可以幫助阻止年輕女孩退出體育運動。阿迪達斯公司2021年的一項調查報告稱,每四個女孩中就有一個在青春期退出了體育運動,擔心月經漏出是一個關鍵原因。

沃森說:"如果[月經]是一個人不參加體育運動的理由,那麼聽到人們談論它可能會說服他們,"。

"我實際上認為談論這些事情應該更加正常。生活中有些事情人們不談論,我不知道為什麼,因為它是'母性'的一部分,不是嗎?每個人處理它的方式都不一樣。"

溫布爾登不是唯一一個女性穿白色衣服的運動--測試板球運動員也談到了在比賽時穿着白色衣服流血的焦慮。雖然這是一個傳統,是體育之夏家具的一部分,但它是在19世紀建立的,當時月經還沒有被廣泛談論。

前世界第一和18次大滿貫冠軍克里斯-埃弗特(Chris Evert)最近說,她希望她能談談她的月經在她的職業生涯中的影響。

但時代在變化,這些對話現在正在發生。


When former Olympic tennis champion Monica Puig wrote about the "mental stress" of wearing white at Wimbledon while on your period, the replies were illuminating.

The majority who replied were supportive, not just of Puig speaking out but of having a wider discussion around the dress code and periods. One or two admitted they had not thought about it being an issue until the Puerto Rican pointed it out last month.

"It is absolutely something the players talk about around Wimbledon because of the all-whites," Britain's Heather Watson tells BBC Sport.

"I think people speak about it a lot - maybe not to the media but among ourselves, for sure."

Things are changing. Conversations around periods and sport are growing. So, let's talk about Wimbledon whites and menstrual bleeding.

White was initially the chosen colour for tennis kits because it avoided sweat patches appearing as it would on coloured clothing. The rules around the whites at Wimbledon are strict. Shorts, skirts and tracksuit bottoms must be completely white, except for a single trim of colour "no wider than one centimetre" down the outside seam.

For Watson, playing in whites is a special experience. "I really like the tradition of it and I wouldn't want to change that," she says. "My only stress is that I get my period but I just plan my period around it."

Watson says she would be concerned, aesthetically, about bleeding through her whites. But her biggest problem is that taking the pill does not stop the symptoms that affect her game. "I get bloated, I get cramps and fatigue," she explains.

The Briton was one of the first tennis players to speak about the impact her period had on her performance when she was beaten in the first round of the Australian Open back in 2015.

Arriving in Melbourne after winning the title in Hobart a week before, Watson says she was "feeling great within my tennis". But on the day of the match, her period started. Watson has "one awful day" every period where she has little energy or strength. Seven years ago, that day left her feeling light-headed and lethargic as she lost 6-4 6-0 to Tsvetana Pironkova.

So when that day falls in the middle of Wimbledon, Watson's home Grand Slam and the place where she won the mixed doubles title in 2016, she takes action.

"I literally had this conversation with Daria [Saville, Australian player] a few weeks ago when we went to practise at Wimbledon together," Watson explains.

"I'd started my period that day and you have to wear all whites at Wimbledon throughout the year as well. I thought 'oh, that's annoying.'

"Then I worked out that I'll probably be on my period again during the Championships so I said I'll probably go on the pill just to skip my period for Wimbledon. That's the thought process and conversations that girls have about it."

While periods and their potential impact on sport are being discussed more, the potential discomfort about wearing white has largely been kept to chats between the players.

Not every player will want to take a pill. Just as performances can be affected by periods, so too can some women feel that a pill affects them on the field. The BBC's Women's Sport Survey from 2020 found that 60% of respondents felt their performance was affected by their period, while 40% did not feel comfortable discussing their period with coaches.

Other players have spoken about the impact of periods. Zheng Qinwen, the only player to take a set off the unstoppable Iga Swiatek at this year's French Open, was hampered by stomach cramps in the final two sets. She said afterwards it was down to "girl things," adding: "I have to do sport and I always have so much pain on the first day. I couldn't go against my nature."

Petra Kvitova spoke about periods before beginning her Wimbledon title defence in 2015, although she did not have an issue with wearing white. "It's never really easy to deal with one more tough thing," she said. "If we have to play the match or training or something, it's difficult."

Wimbledon has a player relations team and player medical team which work closely with the athletes to discuss and address a range of issues, including periods.

"We want to ensure we are prioritising women's health and providing players with anything they require depending on their individual needs," a Wimbledon spokesperson said.

"It could be about how somebody is feeling, it could be needing to talk to someone - all sorts of different things that that team provide.

"The health and wellbeing of players competing at Wimbledon is of the utmost importance to us - we want everyone to feel comfortable and we put that at the centre of everything we do."

Players could fear that advocating for change for women or speaking about periods means people will assume it is being used as an excuse for a poor performance.

Take toilet breaks, as an example. Stefanos Tsitsipas' meandering bathroom breaks during the 2021 US Open led to debates about them being used as a tactical timeout. Some wanted bathroom breaks across Grand Slams to be limited further, for both men and women.

But say a woman wants to use the bathroom break to change a tampon or pad. She has one chance to do so during a best-of-three match, taking three minutes purely for a toilet break or five if she also wants to change her clothing. The Grand Slam rulebook states going over this time means the player will be penalised with back-to-back time violations.

In that time, she needs to get to the toilet, change the pad or tampon, dispose of the old one, make sure she feels comfortable and won't leak, potentially change clothes then pull up the whites and go back out. In practice, the timing of the length of the break will be at the umpire's discretion.

A further bathroom break can be authorised but that is likely to mean speaking to an umpire with a microphone or camera nearby - something that some players may not feel comfortable doing.

Some clothing companies are period-proofing their clothing and Adidas told BBC Sport it had incorporated such technology across women's training products. Wimbledon also keeps abreast of clothing innovations, allowing it to support the players better while maintaining the white clothing it says is a "fundamental" part of its traditions.

"In 2019 we changed the clothing policy so that players could wear approved leggings and mid-thigh compression shorts, which was part also of a broader change to the WTA dress code," a Wimbledon spokesperson said.

"If somebody wanted to wear something underneath their whites then they are more than entitled to do so."

As well as making players feel comfortable it could also help stop younger girls dropping out of sport. An Adidas survey from 2021 reported one in four girls dropped out of sport in adolescence, with fear of period leakage a key reason.

"If [a period] is a reason for someone not to take up sport, then hearing people speak about it would probably convince them otherwise," Watson says.

"I actually think it should be much more normal to speak about those things. There are certain things in life that people don't speak about, and I'm not sure why, because it's part of 'mother nature,' isn't it? Everybody deals with it differently."

Wimbledon is not the only sport where women wear white - Test cricketers have also spoken about the anxiety around bleeding in their whites while playing. While it is a tradition, one that is part of the furniture of the summer of sport, it was one that was established in the 19th Century, when periods were not widely talked about.

Former world number one and 18-time Grand Slam champion Chris Evert recently said she wished she had talked about the impact her period had during her career.

But times are changing, and those conversations are happening now.

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